Question and Answers

    Question
    marinetales August 1, 2021
    There are two aspects to this question - Number 1: How to determine the cargo quantity which can be carried in a particular hold? Number 2: After the cargo has been loaded, how to determine the cargo quantity loaded in that hold? Number 1: The maximum cargo quantity which can be carried in a particular hold can be estimated by using a simple mathematical formula i.e. mass = volume x density or mass = volume / Stowage factor (as stowage factor is the reciprocal of density). This will give you the mass of the cargo which can be loaded in the hold. HOWEVER, this may not be correct as the total mass of cargo which can be loaded in a cargo hold is limited by the fact load density which depends upon the tank top strength in a cargo hold. In order to obtain the maximum cargo which can be loaded safely into a given hold, the vessel's trim and stability booklet (or capacity plan) shall be consulted. Number 2 : In order to determine the quantity of cargo in a particular hold after the cargo has been loaded in to the vessel is a very vague concept and unfortunately it cannot be obtained very accurately. The rough estimation could be first you determine the height of the cargo in the hold and using the length and breadth dimensions of that hold (given in the general arrangement plan) and determine the volume of the cargo. Thereafter, use the formula mentioned above to arrive at the mass of the cargo loaded. Please note above works only in the case of bulk cargo.
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    1. Shall be contained in Watertight casing 2. Have brief instructions about how to use them 3. Emit smoke of highly visible color at a uniform rate of not less than 3 minute when floating in calm water 4. Shall not emit any flame during entire smoke emission time 5. Not to be swamped in a seaway 6. Continue to emit smoke when submerged in a water for a period of 10 seconds under 100 mm of water
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    Following are the SOLAS requirements of Hand flares - 1. To be contained in a Water tight casing 2. Instructions shall be given regarding operation 3. Should have integral means of ignition 4. Burn with a bright red color 5. Burn uniformly with an average luminous intensity of not less than 15,000 cd 6. Have a burning period of not less than one minute 7. Continue to burn after having been immersed in 100 mm of water for a period of 10 seconds
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    Requirements of Rocket Parachute as per SOLAS - 1. Be contained in a Water tight casing 2. Supplied with brief instructions for activating 3. Have integrated means of ignition 4. When fired vertically shall atleast reach an altitude of 300 meters 5. Burn with bright red color 6. Burn uniformly with an average luminous intensity of not less than 30000 cd 7. Have a burning period of not less than 40 seconds 8. Have a rate of descent of not less than 5m/s 9. Should not damage its parachute or attachments while burning
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    Segregated ballast means the ballast water introduced into a tank which is completely separated from the cargo oil and oil fuel system and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast or cargoes other than oil or noxious liquid substances as variously defined in the annexes of the present convention
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    Enroute means that the ship is underway at sea, on a course or courses including deviation from the shortest direct route which as far as practicable for the navigation purpose will cause any discharge to be spread over as great an area of the sea as is reasonable and practicable.
    marinetales July 30, 2021
    Clean ballast means the tank in which, since oil was last carried therein has been so cleaned that effluent there from if it were discharged from the ship which is stationary, into clean calm water on a clear day would not produce visible traces of oil on the surface of the water or on adjoining shore lines or cause a sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of water or upon adjoining shorelines. If the ballast is discharged through an oil discharge monitoring system, approved by the administration, the oil content of the effluent did not exceed 15 ppm
    marinetales July 29, 2021
    ANNEX 1: 1983 ANNEX 2: 1987 ANNEX 3: 1992 ANNEX 4: 2003 ANNEX 5: 1988 ANNEX 6: 2005
    marinetales July 29, 2021
    Protocols are important treaty instruments and are used when major amendments are required to be made to a convention which already adopted, has not yet entered into force.
    marinetales July 29, 2021
    In cargo ships of 1000 gt and upwards at least 2 independently driven fire pumps and for ships lesser than 1000 gt at least 2 power driven pumps out of which one shall be independently driven. Each pump shall in any event be capable of delivering at least two required jets of water. Pumps shall have capacity of 25 m3/hr each.
    marinetales July 29, 2021
    International Shore connection shall be having the following dimensions - Outside diameter : 178 mm Inside diameter : 64 mm Bolt Circle diameter : 132 mm Slot in flanges : 4 holes, 19mm in diameter spaced equidistant Flange thickness : 14.5 mm Minimum Bolts and Nuts : 4, each of 16mm DIA and 50mm in length
    marinetales July 29, 2021
    Following are the requirements of a fixed CO2 systems, as per the SOLAS - 1. The pipes for conveying system shall be provided with control valve so marked as to indicate clearly the space to which the pipe is led 2. The provision shall be made to prevent inadvertent release of the medium into space 3. The pipes may pass through accommodation areas provided that they are of substantial thickness and that tightness is verified with a pressure test at a head not less than 5N/mm2 4. Means shall be provided to give an audible indication of the release in which persons normally work 5. The alarm shall operate for the length of the time needed to evacuate the space but in no case less than 20seconds before the medium is released 6. Control of the system shall be readily accessible and simple to operate. Clear instructions shall be displayed 7. For cargo spaces the quantity of the carbon di oxide available shall be sufficient enough to give minimum volume of the free gas equal to 30% of the gross volume of the largest cargo space protected on the ship 8. For machinery space the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient enough to give minimum volume of free gas equal to 40% of the gross volume of largest machinery space so protected. This volume excludes the part of the casing above the level at which the horizontal area of the casing is 40% or less of the horizontal area of the space concerned taken midway between the tank top and the lowest part of the casing or 35% of the gross volume of the largest machinery space protected including casing 9. The volume of free carbon di oxide shall be calculated at 0.56m3/kg. 10. For machinery space the fixed piping system shall be such that 85% of the gas can be discharged into the space within 2 minutes 11. Two separate controls shall be provided to release including activation of the alarm.
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    Following test and checks shall be carried out on SCBA - 1. Visual test - a). General condition of the set, condition of visor 2. Gauge/leak test - a). After opening the valve there should be steady increase in the reading. The pressure should not fall - if it does it shows leakage 3. Face Mask test - a). All straps are in good condition and no leakages occurs in face mask 4. Operational check and test - a). Bottle recharged to optimum pressure. Low pressure whistle to be tested
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    Following are the functional requirement of Fire Safety - 1. Division of Ship into main vertical and horizontal zones by thermal and structural boundaries 2. Separation of Accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries 3. Restricted used of combustible materials 4. Detection of the fire in the zone of origin 5. Containment and extinction of fire in the zone of origin 6. Protection of means of escape and access for fire fighting 7. Ready availability of of fire extinguishing appliances 8. Minimization of possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapors
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    A Cargo ship must carry - 1. International Tonnage certificate 2. International Load line certificate 3. International Loadline Exemption certificate 4. Intact stability booklet 5. Damage Control Booklet 6. Minimum Safe Manning certificate 7. International Oil Pollution Prevention certificate 8. Oil Record Book 9. Shipboard oil pollution prevention plan 10. Garbage managment plan 11.Garbage record book 12. Cargo Securing Manual 13. Document of compliance 14. Safety Managment certificate 15. Cargo Ship Safety Construction certificate 16. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment certificate 17. Cargo Ship Safety Certificate 18. Exemption certificate 19. Document of compliance (for DG Goods) 20. Document of Authorization (for Grain) 21. COFR 22. ESP 23. Ballast water management plan 24. Ballast water record book 24. Cargo securing manual
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    Certificates which are required onboard all ships - 1. International Tonnage certificate 2. International Loadline certificate 3. International Load line exemption certificate 4. Intact Stability Booklet 5. Damage Control Booklet 6. Minimum safe manning certificate 7. Certificate for Master, Officers and ratings 8. International Oil pollution prevention certificate 9. Oil record Book 10. International Air pollution prevention certificate 11. International Sewage pollution prevention certificate 12. Shipboard Oil pollution prevention plan 13. Garbage Management plan 14. International Ballast water management certificate 15. International Ballast water management plan 16. Cargo securing manual 17. Document of compliance
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    A treaty is a written international agreement between two states or between a number of states which is binding by the international law.
    marinetales July 28, 2021
    The standard documentation would require follow - 1. Crew List 2. General Declaration 3. Crew effects declaration 4. Ship's Store declaration 5. Maritime declaration of health 6. Passenger declaration 7. Bond store declaration 8. Cargo documents
    marinetales July 27, 2021
    The depths given on a Nautical Chart (whether in meters, foot or fathoms etc) are measured from the Chart datum. Common chart datums are the Lowest Astronomical Tide or Mean Low Low water tide. For Non-tidal areas Mean Sea level (MSL) values are used. The echo sounder gives the depth BELOW KEEL. Let us assume that Echo Sounder is giving you a fairly accurate reading. In order to compare both (Echo sounder and Chart readings) following shall be used - Depth on Chart = Depth obtained from Echo Sounder + draft of the vessel - Value of Tide at the given place Above is just an assumption and the values could be affected by the rolling/pitching, sea conditions and other meteorological phenomenon such as High-low pressure systems.
    marinetales July 26, 2021
    My subsequent actions on taking the ground will largely be dependent on what I was able to do on running in to the shore line. Assuming that the prevailing conditions did not lend to any positive actions, I would: (a) Order the Chief Officer to walk back both anchors to prevent accidentally re-floating off the ground into a deep water predicament. (b) Order the Chief Officer to obtain a damage assessment, to include a full sounding of all the ship’s tanks. (c) Order the Navigator to obtain the tidal data for the next few days, paying particular attention to the heights and times of high and low waters. (d) Open up communications with owners/agents with the view to instigating repairs. Cause an entry to be made in the Official and Deck Log Books. (e) Order the crew to establish an oil boom (barrier equipment required) around the perimeter of the vessel. (f) In the event barrier equipment is not available, make an improvised boom with mooring ropes. (g) Ascertain the depth of water around the propeller. (h) Add additional ballast to the ship to reduce the possibility of uncontrolled movement of the vessel. (i) If and when appropriate, have tugs ordered to stand-by, especially so for when any attempt to re-float is to be made. (j) Inform the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) as soon as practical by use of an Incident Report Form. (k) Display the appropriate ‘aground signals’ while on the beach. (l) Inspect the lower hull and the associated ground area at low water time by boat if necessary, in order to complete the damage inspection.
    marinetales July 26, 2021
    Beaching the vessel is an extreme action and would not be carried out if an alternative action to save the vessel was available. It is an action which is employed to save the hull, with the view to instigating repairs and to re-float at a later time with improved conditions. The ideal conditions for a beaching operation should include all or as many of the following conditions: (a) A daylight operation. (b) A gentle slope to the beach at the point of taking the ground. (c) A rock-free ground area. (d) Sheltered from prevailing weather. (e) Current-free and/or non-tidal situation. (f) Surf free. (g) Communications into and out of the beach area.
    marinetales July 26, 2021
    Track space for a search operation would be based on: (a) The target definition (size, afloat Yes/No). (b) Day or night search time. (c) State of visibility, rain, fog, mist or snow. (d) The likely quality of radar target presented, if any. (e) The height of eye and prominence of lookouts. (f) The number of surface search units employed. (g) The searching vessels speed of operation. (h) Recommendations from Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) and/or On Scene Co-ordinator (OSC). (i) Recommendations from the International Aeronautical and Marine Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual. (j) Area and intended search time before nightfall. (k) Availability of search lights for night operations. (l) Master’s experience.
    marinetales July 26, 2021
    Synchronized pitching is when the period of the vessel pitching, equals the period of encounter of the waves from either ahead or astern. It must be considered extremely dangerous especially if in an area of abnormal waves. It can be overcome by reducing the ship’s speed and changing the period of encounter.
    marinetales July 25, 2021
    Engaging with tugs must always be considered as a high risk area of work and as such the following points would go some way to making the task as safe as possible: (a) Clarify beforehand the method of engagement as to whether the tugs line is to be used or the ship’s line and which ‘lead’ is intended. (b) All persons involved in the operation should be adequately kitted out in protective clothing and briefed as to the nature of the activities involved. (c) Adequate communications, tested beforehand, should be available between towing stations to the bridge and the towing vessel if appropriate. (d) If the tugs line is to be used, this should be inspected to be free of defects and be seen to be of adequate strength. (e) Throughout the operation all personnel should be advised to keep clear of bights in wires/ropes. (f) The eye of the towline should not be placed on the ‘bitts’ but the wire should be set in a figure ‘8’, turns, around the bollards. The top turns should be lightly lashed to prevent accidentally jumping off. (g) Non-essential personnel should be kept well clear of towlines and the towing area.
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