Question and Answers

    Question
    marinetales August 1, 2021
    There are two aspects to this question - Number 1: How to determine the cargo quantity which can be carried in a particular hold? Number 2: After the cargo has been loaded, how to determine the cargo quantity loaded in that hold? Number 1: The maximum cargo quantity which can be carried in a particular hold can be estimated by using a simple mathematical formula i.e. mass = volume x density or mass = volume / Stowage factor (as stowage factor is the reciprocal of density). This will give you the mass of the cargo which can be loaded in the hold. HOWEVER, this may not be correct as the total mass of cargo which can be loaded in a cargo hold is limited by the fact load density which depends upon the tank top strength in a cargo hold. In order to obtain the maximum cargo which can be loaded safely into a given hold, the vessel's trim and stability booklet (or capacity plan) shall be consulted. Number 2 : In order to determine the quantity of cargo in a particular hold after the cargo has been loaded in to the vessel is a very vague concept and unfortunately it cannot be obtained very accurately. The rough estimation could be first you determine the height of the cargo in the hold and using the length and breadth dimensions of that hold (given in the general arrangement plan) and determine the volume of the cargo. Thereafter, use the formula mentioned above to arrive at the mass of the cargo loaded. Please note above works only in the case of bulk cargo.
    marinetales July 25, 2021
    A boatswains chair to a gantline is connected via double sheet bend only.
    marinetales July 25, 2021
    Union Plates are employed on derricks which operate with a single span ‘topping lift’ as opposed to a ‘span tackle’, topping lift. The downhaul of the single span topping lift is shackled to the apex of the Union Plate, while the bull wire, and chain preventer are secured to the base of the plate. They are also employed to secure the runners and hook arrangement in a union purchase rig, where a triple swivel hook is not used.
    marinetales July 25, 2021
    Class I and II, explosive goods require a specially constructed magazine stowage.
    marinetales July 25, 2021
    No, passenger vessels are not allowed to carry Class I (explosives) dangerous goods.
    marinetales July 24, 2021
    (a) Low water rate/pressure in the scrubber. (b) High water level rate inside the scrubber. (c) High gas temperature. (d) Failure of inert gas blower. (e) High oxygen. (f) Power supply failure on automatic control. (g) Low water level in the deck water seal. (h) Low gas pressure. (i) High gas pressure.
    marinetales July 24, 2021
    Dunnage is wood plank boards laid under cargoes to provide ventilation and in some cases assist drainage of moisture from cargoes. Some cargoes require ‘double dunnage’. All dunnage must be clean and free of oil or grease contamination as this could spoil cargo quality. Dunnage can be used as a separation mode between cargo parcels but its prime function is to separate cargo from the steel decks and avoid cargo sweat.
    marinetales July 21, 2021
    A stevedore damage report is a brief report regarding the damages to the vessel's outfitting and structure caused by the inappropriate actions of the stevedores during cargo work. Such report usually contains the date, time and location of the damage along with the brief description of the events that led to the damage. The report is supplemented by the photographs of the damage. This report is required to be sent by the master to all parties - agents, charters, owners as soon as the damage is discovered but not later than 24 hours in any case. This is done in order to reserve the rights of the owners and to clearly inform all parties that the damages shall be repaired on the account of the party which caused it in the first place. Master shall always refer to the Charter Party instructions on the Damages caused by the Stevedores. In all cases, the damages shall be repaired before the vessel sails out.
    marinetales July 1, 2021
    Before explaining the Under deck tonnage let us first understand the meaning of tonnage deck. The tonnage deck is the upper deck in vessels having one deck and for the vessels having more than one deck, tonnage deck is the second deck from below. Spaces above tonnage decks are ‘tween decks (if present) and superstructures. The underdeck tonnage is the total volume (measured in tons) of 2.83 m3 of the ship below the tonnage deck to the inside of frames, underside of deck plating and above the inner bottom. This is obtained by detailed calculations, in a manner somewhat similar to that for displacement calculations and varies in detail for individual regulations; tonnage measured according to the tonnage regulations may, therefore, be slightly different from the actual volume of the spaces below the tonnage deck calculated for, say, cargo capacity. The overdeck tonnage is the volume to the inside of frames and deck plating of the ‘tween decks, poop, bridge, forecastle, deckhouses and erections above the tonnage deck less the exempted spaces. Spaces exempted include dry cargo space (unless in a break in the deck) and certain closed-in spaces associated with machinery, safety equipment, navigation, galleys, washrooms, water ballast and workshops. Refer to the picture below.
    seawizard June 11, 2021
    It is the responsibility of the carrier to properly load, stow, carry, care for and discharge the cargo. It is the responsibility of the Master to ensure that owners rights are always reserved with respect to cargo claims by ensuring below - 1. Master should be well familiar with the nature, properties, hazards and care instructions for the cargo 2. Master shall go through the Shipper's declaration of the cargo tendered prior loading and ensure that the properties such as Moisture Content, TML etc are within limits 3. Above should be compounded with checks by ship's staff while loading that the cargo is being loaded in suitable condition. Such eg may include - checking temperature of coal cargo being loaded, Random can test during loading of iron ore or visual inspection of steel cargo / grain cargo etc. 4. If the cargo being loaded in not found to be in suitable condition - Master has to inform the owners, charters, agents and issue a Notice of protest at the same time contacting P and I club after consultation with the Owners. Such NOP shall be accompanied with Photographs, videos, log book entries. 5. Master should reject such cargo and ask the stevedores to replace it 6. During transit, the Master, in accordance with the care instructions of the cargo shall ensure that all precautions shall be taken timely and in accordance with instructions provided by the Shipper. Such eg could include - ventilation in case of Grain. 7. If the weather experienced is adverse and Master assumes any possibility for damage to cargo OR because of the inclement weather he is not able to take precautions which is required by the ordinary practice of seamanship such as carrying out ventilation, he should bring this to the notice of Owners, Charters and issue a Note of Protest. Such events shall be recorded in the log book, supported by photographs, videos and temperature / weather / dew point records if applicable. 8. Similarly, Master shall ensure that the cargo is discharged in a condition in which it was loaded. Master, in case of any doubt, should always consult the owners, charters in such matters.
    seawizard June 11, 2021
    Hydrates, if not handled properly could be the cause of fire and explosion onboard a LPG tanker. Hydrates are compounds, in the form of crystalline substances, developed from the interaction of water and hydrocarbons at certain pressures and temperatures. They are commonly present in LPG cargoes and must be safely managed throughout the cargo system. Hydrates, if not removed, can result in frozen regulating valves, clogged filters, damaged equipment, and other problems in the related cargo systems. Senior shore side operating company personnel provide extensive technical support when a vessel is required to load cargo at higher temperatures and when substantial hydrates quantities are known to be contained within; Shipboard Safety Management Systems and Operational Manuals be inclusive of all procedures to be expected and performed onboard. In the incident under investigation a procedure for removal of hydrates was unavailable; Such procedures, when they are developed, implemented, and performed should align with industry best practices and all changes to the documented procedures should be vetted through the associated parties for approval ensuring notification takes place as required; Routine and frequent training of shipboard officers and crew based on documented procedures for vessels transporting dangerous cargos should take place on a regular basis and cover such topics as; The safety risk of releasing LPG in open and enclosed spaces; - Proper methods to acknowledge and investigate gas detection alarms regardless of location; (Including making proper notifications to responsible parties) - Ensuring that all ventilation systems are functioning as designed with no conditions hindering its effectiveness such as open doors or obstructions; - Methods to inspect and identify leaks throughout the cargo system, and corrective actions to take when leaks are identified; - Ways to manage and minimize the negative effects of hydrates throughout the entire cargo system; - Methods to reduce static electricity as found in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 77.
    marinetales June 17, 2021
    NO. Never. The Bill of lading are signed and claused on the basis of Mates receipt. If the Mates receipt are claused with cargo damage remarks, the bill of lading cannot be signed clean.
    seawizard June 5, 2021
    In case the cargo is not listed in the IMSBC Code - 1. Prior to loading, the shipper needs to provide details of characteristics and properties of the cargo to the competent authority at the port of loading 2. Competent Authority will assess basis its properties. If the cargo belongs to group A or B, the competent authority has to set the conditions for carriage. If the cargo belongs to Group C, the competent authorities at the discharge port and flag state to be contacted regarding the authorization for carriage. 3. In both cases, the competent authority at port of loading shall issue a certificate to the Master stating the properties and hazards of cargo. IMO shall be informed to include this cargo in the IMSBC Code.
    seawizard June 5, 2021
    CSC plate is a valid safety approval plate which states that the container has been tested, inspected and maintained in accordance with CSC regulations. The CSC plate is fixed on the outside of the door of container where it can be easily read. The containers are required to be inspected by the administration. It gives important information such as - 1. Container Model 2. Manufacturers Name 3. Date Manufactured 4. Container Number 5. Gross mass 6. Allowable Stacking weight 7. Racking test 8. Name of classification society 9. Approval Number 10. Owners name and address 11. Nature of timber treatment / fumigation details (SEE ATTACHED PIC)
    seawizard June 5, 2021
    Inert gas mainly consist of the following components - 1. Nitrogen : 83% 2. SO2 : 50 ppm 3. C02 : 12-14% 4. Oxygen : 2-4% 5. CO: in traces 6. NO: in traces 7. Water vapor : in traces 8. Ash and soot: in traces
    seawizard June 4, 2021
    Following precautions shall be taken by the Master prior signing the Bill of Lading - 1. Ensure Bill of Lading is in a format which is approved by the Charters / Owners 2. Ensure the B/L is correctly dated 3. Ensure the B/L is in conformance with the Mate's Receipt 4. Ensure that Marginal Clauses, if really required, are inserted 5. Ensure if the freight is prepaid or not and you have clear permission from the Charter and Owners to sign the B/L 6. Ensure that owners right is always preserved 7. Ensure the number of copies of B/L issued and all are signed 6.
    seawizard June 2, 2021
    A Waybill can be used in the following situations - When there is high degree of trust between the shipper and consignee When the goods will not be traded or sold during the transport When the goods are paid for with an approved line of credit
    seawizard June 2, 2021
    A waybill is a Non-negotiable document which provides a receipt of goods by the carrier and evidence of contract; but It is not a document of title to the goods. Sea Waybill is used when the shipper decides to release ownership of the cargo immediately. This means that the goods can be delivered to the person identified in the document, and they will simply have to verify their identity instead of presenting a document to claim the freight. When to use Way Bills ? When there is high degree of trust between the shipper and consignee When the goods will not be traded or sold during the transport When the goods are paid for with an approved line of credit
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Following are the limits of liability as per the Hague Visby Rules - 1. Maximum liability 666.67 units of Account/Kg or 2 Units of Account/Kg whichever higher, unless nature and value of goods declared and inserted in B/L. 2. Unit of Account is SDR, defined by IMF and is declared daily. 3. Number of packages in container covered in B/L, determine liability and if not then container is considered one Package.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Shippers and consignee names and addresses. 2. Date of Bill of Lading 3. Special Account no used for order tracking. 4. Load port and Discharge port. 5. Number of Shipping Units, type of packaging, correct shipping name. 6. Exact weight and quantity of shipment. 7. Number of copy - whether original or copy 8. Signed by Master.
    seawizard June 13, 2021
    The only problem with the framo pumps - 1. it is hard to identify and repair damages like a rupture. Indeed, if the pump loses its integrity and starts to leak, the components may start getting corroded without any sign being seen since it is submerged. While these cases are rare, in the event they occurred the damages may be identified too late. 2. The second disadvantage, while being quite obvious, is the cost. Effectively, due to their technical nature and all the safety units required, framo pumps tend to have a higher cost than regular ones.
    marinetales June 14, 2021
    On ships where the cargo tanks are made of stainless steel (such as chemical tankers), sometimes due to surface contamination of the steel surface the stainless steel may get exposed to corrosion. Passivation is the process for cleaning / treating the stainless steel cargo tanks with certain chemicals in order to ensure the anti-corrosion properties of the tanks is restored by formation of a thin anti-corrosive layer on the stainless steel surface. A way to carry out passivation is by acid pickling and washing. Pickling is normally carried out by applying thin layer of picking paste which consists of nitric acid or nitric/ hydrofluoric acid mixtures. Thin layer is normally applied to spots in tank where surface contamination is evident. Another way of carrying out pickling is to wash the tanks with solution of mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid. After 30 minutes, the tanks are washed using fresh water.
    marinetales May 27, 2021
    Uses of dunnage - To provide protection to the cargo from water damage caused by contact with water from the bilges, other cargo or double bottom tanks It protects moisture sensitive cargoes such as bagged cargo ( eg. coffee, cocoa) or bales (eg tobacco, tea) from sweat, which forms on a ship’s sides and runs off over the decks. to provide air channels between stows to aid ventilation, mainly for refrigerated cargoes to prevent damage to goods through contact with either the ship’s structure or with other cargo to aid in the effective distribution of weight on tank tops of hatch covers to aid in filling void spaces between cargoes, especially unevenly shaped cargoes Types of Dunnage - Floor Dunnage This is mainly used to lift the cargo off the tank top This prevents cargo damage from sweat or moisture running off from other cargo Floor dunnage is laid crosswise and the direction depends on the design of the vessel In ships with large lateral water drainage (bilges), the first layer must be laid cross wise, while ships with fore and aft drainage(wells), the first layer must be laid lengthwise. The dunnage should be laid close together to prevent the cargo from making contact with the tank tops. On modern vessel’s especially reefers permanent deck gratings, made of grooved and perforated aluminum or plywood gratings, are fitted Lateral Dunnage This usually takes the shape of a spar ceiling on a general cargo vessel. These are wooden beams securely connected to the side of the cargo hold. Lateral dunnage prevents contact of the cargo with the ship’s side and so prevents cargo damage due to sweat In the absence of spar ceilings, wooden or criss cross dunnage must be used. Criss Cross dunnage consists of nailed grids, cross wide wooden dunnage being nailed to the vertical uprights (vertical positioned upright beams) Permanent Collapsible Dunnage (PCDs) This comprises of painted or varnished 8’ x 4’ plywood sheets that may be fitted to ship’s sides These sheets are hinged at their base and open out to be secured in a variety of ways Their main purpose is to square off curved ship’s sides and they are particularly useful for the palletized cargo Interlayer Dunnage This separates cargoes from each other, either for the protection of of an underlying cargo from contamination by a top cargo or for the segregation of individual batches of cargo Top Dunnage This generally protects the cargo from contamination damage from the water, hydraulic oil, etc dripping from the weather decks. Top dunnage must also allow for some air circulation and evaporation, especially for 3. hygroscopic cargoes For this reason, top dunnage is usually made from an air permeable material such as paper or jute Side dunnage This is similar to Spar ceiling and provides protection against contamination from sides and prevents mechanical damage Inflatable dunnage This is being used widely on refrigerated ships. This dunnage can be re-used an inflated using compressed air which is readily available on board. Any wooden dunnage that is too fresh or has been exposed to the atmosphere must not be used. While using Wooden dunnage it is prudent to obtain a fumigation certificate for the Dunnage being used stating that the Dunnage has been properly fumigated.