Question and Answers

    Question
    seawizard June 11, 2021
    Following shall be briefed and discussed with Chief Engineer for the voyage - 1. The complete overview of the voyage and speed and consumption requirements as per the Charter Party 2. Points in the voyage where we need engines on Maneuvering speed and require engine room to be manned on UMS classes ships 3. The weather most likely to be encountered during the voyage 4. Important legs in the voyage such as entering ECA areas / other Special Areas 5. The total estimated consumption of the voyage as per calculation and will the vessel be having sufficient ROB's 6. Local regulations which are needed to be complied with 7. Status of machinery and any overhauling which is or will be overdue during the course of the voyage 8. Estimated port stay and readiness of Cargo loading / discharging gears (cranes and grabs) if being used 9. Stores and spares being received and any urgent items required
    seawizard June 10, 2021
    INSPIRES was launched in order to exercise effective open ocean vessel management, to provide security to vessels, weather forecast to enhance safety of navigation and monitor incidents of pollution from ships engaged in carriage of hazardous cargoes. Indian Ship Position and Information Reporting System (INSPIRES) was launched with effect from 1st November 1986 by the Indian Navy in coordination with the DG Shipping. This reporting system has wider area of coverage in the Indian Ocean. The main objective of the system is Open Ocean Vessel management for security of all vessels navigating in the Arabian Sea/ Bay of Bengal. An Indian Naval Communication Centre (COMCENs) Mumbai and Vishakhapatnam are functioning as the shore stations for receiving INSPIRES messages from all vessels. Reporting requirements - 1. All Indian vessels including coasting / fishing vessels of tonnage 300 GRT and above shall participate in this reporting system. 2. All vessels other than Indian ship of tonnage 100 GRT and above are encouraged to send the reports in the prescribed format when they are transiting within the INSPIRES ship reporting areas.
    seawizard June 10, 2021
    INDSAR conforms to the provisions of International convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979 (SAR convention 1979) to which India is signatory. Aim is to provide / co-ordinate the effective search and rescue operations in a possible event of any marine casualty at sea. It came with effect from 01st February, 2003 and named as Indian Ship Reporting System (INDSAR). This system is operated and maintained by the Indian Coast Guard through their Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre (MRCC) at Mumbai. INDSAR is a supplementary and an advance computerized system designed to contribute to safety of life/timely search and rescue operations at sea. Reporting requirements - 1. All Indian ships of 100 GRT and above entering into or transiting the Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) shall participate in the INDSAR reporting system. 2. All ships other than Indian Ships of 300 GRT and above entering or transiting through the above region are encouraged to participate in INDSAR reporting system. 3. all ships 100 GRT and above irrespective of the flag carrying a nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials entering into or transiting the Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR) waters are encouraged to participate in the INDSAR reporting system for safety; and all ships of 20 years and above irrespective of the flag are advised to send the relevant report under INDSAR within ISRR.
    seawizard June 5, 2021
    As per SOLAS, the maneuverability of a vessel is considered to be satisfactory when : 1. Advance of a vessel should be less than 4.5 times of ship's length 2. The tactical diameter should be less than 5 times of ship's length 3. The track reach should not exceed 15 times of the Ship's length (except for low powered and large displacement vessel but in any case shall not exceed 20 times the ship's length.
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    Group-flashing light in which the flashes are combined in successive groups of different numbers of flashes. So, this light is a variation of Group Flashing Light with an extra flashing element. Preferred channel marks use a Composite group flashing pattern.
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    Flashing light in which the flashes are combined in groups, each group including the same number of flashes, and in which the groups are repeated at regular intervals. The eclipses separating the flashes within each group are of equal duration and this duration is clearly shorter than the duration of the eclipse between two successive groups. Example of such lights are : Fl (4) 8s Light and Q (6) 8s Light (see attached pic)
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    A light which continuously lit and is steady is called fixed light.
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    Flashing lights are the lights where the period of darkness is more than the period of light. There are four types of flashing lights - 1. Flashing Light (Fl) : Less than 50 flashes in 1 minute – approx 1 flash per second 2. Quick (Q) : Between 50 and 80 flashes per minute; approx 2 Flashes in 1 second 3. Very Quick (VQ) : Between 80 and 180 flashes per minute; approx 3 Flashes in 1 second 4. Ultra Quick (UQ) : More than 180 flashes per minute; too quick to count
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    A Great Circle Course is drawn first on a Gnomonic Chart. This GC course is a straight line on the Gnomonic chart because of the Projection of the chart. Thereafter you need to transfer this course on to the Mercator Chart which results in plotted course appearing as a curved route. How to transfer the GC route to the Mercator Chart? It needs to be decided by the Master as after how many degrees of longitude would he require to alter the course of the vessel. Also, he needs to decide what is the maximum latitude he wants to reach and limit his route. Basically, he does not want to go higher than a certain latitude to avoid bad weather, ice limits etc This highest latitude is called the vertex of the GC course. So after these two things are decided, we can start transferring the waypoints from the gnomonic chart to mercator chart. Let us assume that Master decides the course alteration interval to be carried out every 5 degrees of longitude. So, first pick up the way points from the Gnomonic chart and not down the latitude and position where the GC Route drawn on Gnomonic chart crosses longitudes at every 5 degree interval. For example, if you have noted down the latitude at 030 - 00W then note the latitude passing through 025-00W longitude on your course. Similarly, the next will be latitude passing through the 020-00W. So the interval remains constant at 5 degress of longitude. Now as we know the limiting latitude of the course. You shall ensure that the route does not go beyond that latitude. After noting down these way points plot these waypoints on the mercator chart and you will observe that the Course drawn appears to be curved. The Advantages of GC Route is - 1. Saving of distance, 2. Saving of time 3. Saving of fuel Disadvantages of GC Course 1. Takes you to higher latitudes which may result in encountering heavy weather resulting in drop in speed 2. Practically, no course is a pure GC Course. Mostly a combination of Rhumb Line course and GC Course is used for transatlantic voyages. Hence, the distance saving is slightly less than anticipated.
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    Lights having equal phases of light and dark periods are called Isophase Lights.
    seawizard June 3, 2021
    Lights where the duration of periods of light is MORE than the duration of periods of dark are called Occulting Lights.
    seawizard June 1, 2021
    For Turning Circle: Advance not to exceed 4.5 ships length and tactical diameter not to exceed 5 times ship’s length For Stopping distance: Track reach in full astern stopping test should not exceed 15 times ship’s length, this can be modified by Administration for larger ships but not to exceed 20 time length in any case
    seawizard June 1, 2021
    Following are the signs of a vessel experiencing squat - 1. Mean body sinkage increases 2. Ship generally develops extra trim by bow or stern 3. Wave making increases especially at bow 4. Ship become more sluggish to maneuver 5. Draft indicators indicate change in draft 6. Propeller RPM indicator show a decrease 7.Drop in speed 8. Sudden vibration 9. Any rolling, pitching and heaving motions will all be reduced 10. Appearance of mud in water 11. Turning circle diameter increase 12. Stopping distances and time increase 13. Effectiveness of rudder decreases 14. Width of wake increases.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Signs of vessel experiencing squat - 1. Decrease in Speed / RPM and increased vibrations 2. Steering becomes sluggish vessel becomes difficult to maneuver 3. Increase in amplitude of waves from the ships movement 4. Bow waves becomes nearly perpendicular to ship's hull
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Co-tidal / Co-range chart is used to find the times and heights of high water in offshore areas and at places which lies between secondary ports.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A new danger is the term used to describe newly discovered hazards which have not yet been indicated in nautical publications. They may include naturally occurring obstructions such as sandbanks and rocks or man made dangers such as wrecks. They are marked using the Emergency Wreck Marking Buoy. The buoy is expected to be deployed for the first 24-72 hours after the wreck occurs. After that time more permanent buoyage (such as isolated danger marks or cardinal marks should be deployed and charts updated.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A chart which is published for the first time is called a New Chart. The date of publication is inserted outside the bottom margin usually in the middle of the chart.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    New Edition refers to a navigational Chart which is completely or partly revised. New edition is normally stated next to the date of the publication and all previous copies are cancelled when a New Edition is published.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    The Gnomonic charts are used for - 1. Great Circle sailing 2. Polar navigation in high latitudes
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A Single buoy mooring (also known as single-point mooring or SPM) is a loading buoy anchored offshore, that serves as a mooring point and interconnect for tankers loading or offloading gas or liquid products. The parts of a typical SPM includes - 1. Buoy body 2. Mooring and anchoring parts - includes mooring components like Anchors, anchor chains and chain stoppers 3. Product transfer system - hoses etc 4. Other components such as - access to the buoy deck, Fendering to protect the buoy, Lifting and handling equipment to aid materials handling, Navigational aids for maritime visibility, and fog horn to keep moving vessel alert, An electrical subsystem to enable valve operation and to power navigation aids or other equipment. Attached the construction of a typical SPM.
    marinetales May 27, 2021
    We know that Polaris is situated NEAR to the north pole and NOT exactly on the north pole. Polaris is always located within 1 degree of the North Pole. Determining Latitude by polaris involves the use of GHA Aries which is measured with references to the CELESTIAL POLE. Since Polaris is not exactly located on the North Pole, 1 degree is subtracted while calculating the latitude from the polaris tables to adjust for the assumption which is taken in to account that polaris lies on North pole.
    marinetales May 24, 2021
    Rule 19 applies to any situation when the vessels are navigating in or near areas of restricted visibility and are not in sight of one another.
    marinetales May 24, 2021
    A safe speed is a speed less than the maximum at which the navigating officer can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and stop within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. Safe speed cannot be given a numerical value and it's value could be different in different circumstances (such as open seas or coastal waters or areas with high traffic density).
    marinetales May 24, 2021
    A lighthouse has the following characteristics - 1. Name / Number of the lighthouse 2. Position / location 3. List characteristics - flashing / color of light / duration (Isophase, ocuulting etc) 4. Construction description (Eg white round tower, red bands etc) 5. Range of light (Geographical) 6. Whether operational or not
    marinetales May 24, 2021
    No the Rule 34(e) will not apply in Restricted visibility. Because for Rule 19 to be applied, the vessels are required to be navigating in or near area of Restricted Visibility. So, in simple words, when the visibility is obscured or vessels are navigating in areas or near areas where the visibility is restricted, only Rule 19 applies.