Question and Answers

    Question
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Actual Total Loss is said have happened - 1. When the insured object is destroyed. 2. When the insured object is so damaged that it ceases to be a thing of the kind insured. No notice of abandonment needs to be given in this case. 3. When a ship goes missing and after a lapse of reasonable time there is now news of it, then also actual total loss is presumed.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. It is the right of an insurer, after he pays for a loss, to assume the rights of the insured to recover this loss from the responsible party. 2. After a claim from the assured has been settled and paid by the Insurer, the insurer is now entitled to place himself in the position of the Insured, to the extent of acquiring the insured rights and remedies in respect of loss. 3. This prevents the insured from collecting his losses twice and reduces total cost of the claim. 4. The whole point of subrogation clause is that Insured cannot make any profit from his loss.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Particular Average is defined by Marine Insurance Act as a partial loss caused by a peril insured against and which is not a General Average loss and is a partial loss arising from accident. 2. Particular average loss falls directly on party interested in subject matter. 3. So, in case of hull damage the ship owner / underwriter will bear the loss. 4. Examples are: loss of deck cargo in heavy weather, damage to hull/cargo due to fire, damage to ship/cargo due to collision etc.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. It’s the codification of the laws of General Average, the maritime principle that specifies that all parties involved in a sea-venture must proportionately share the losses that results from sacrifices made to the cargo to save the remainder. 2. Under these rules, a danger must be imminent and there must be a voluntary jettison of a portion of the ship’s cargo in order to save the whole and the attempt to avoid the danger must be successful. 3. If the above is true, then all parties involved in the maritime adventure must share proportionately the financial burden of the losses incurred to the owner of any cargo that was jettisoned to save the vessel.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Vital difference between COA and consecutive voyage contract is that the former is based on the cargo while the latter is based on the named vessel. In Voyage Contract, if the ship becomes a total loss, the obligation of the carrier ends as the carrier is no longer available to the charterers. While in COA, if ship owner intends to carry the cargo in his own vessel, even though he had the option of carrying it in any vessel. If that vessel becomes a total loss then the ship owner is liable to charterer and obliged to fulfill its contract.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Following are the limits of liability as per the Hague Visby Rules - 1. Maximum liability 666.67 units of Account/Kg or 2 Units of Account/Kg whichever higher, unless nature and value of goods declared and inserted in B/L. 2. Unit of Account is SDR, defined by IMF and is declared daily. 3. Number of packages in container covered in B/L, determine liability and if not then container is considered one Package.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Shippers and consignee names and addresses. 2. Date of Bill of Lading 3. Special Account no used for order tracking. 4. Load port and Discharge port. 5. Number of Shipping Units, type of packaging, correct shipping name. 6. Exact weight and quantity of shipment. 7. Number of copy - whether original or copy 8. Signed by Master.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Particularly Sea Sensitive Areas or PSSA is an area that needs special protection through action by IMO because of its significance for recognized socio-economic, ecological or scientific reasons and because it is vulnerable to damage by international maritime activities. Examples of PSSA are: Great Barrier Reef, Sabana Camaguey Archipelago, Cuba, Malpelo Islands Canada, Wadden sea, sea around florida keys, western European waters.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Following amendments were adopted to STCW (Manila Amendments) 1. Improved measures to counteract fraudulent practices of CoC. 2. Revised work hours and rest requirements and updated medical standards for crew fitness. 3. New certification for AB’s. 4. New requirements for ECDIS training. 5. New requirements for training in leadership and teamwork. 6. New training and certification requirements for ETO’s. 7. New requirements for security training. 8. Introduction to modern training methods including web training. 9. New training guidance for DPO’s. 10New training guidance for personnel operating in polar region.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Steering Gear testing is required by the SOLAS regulation 26 Chapter V. Within 12 hours prior departure, Steering gear to be checked by ship’s crew Following shall be tested- 1. The main steering gear. 2. The auxiliary steering gear. 3. Remote steering gear control stations. 4. Steering position located on Navigation Bridge. 5. Emergency power supply operation 6. Rudder angle indicator in relation to the actual position of the rudder. 7. Power failure alarms. 8. Automatic isolating arrangements and automatic equipments. 9. Full movement of rudder from hard over to hard over under required time 10. Visual inspection of steering gear. 11. Means of communication between bridge and ECR. 12. Block diagram for steering gear system to be displayed. 13. Officers/crew to be familiar with change over procedures. 14. Emergency drills to be carried out at least every 3 months 15. Date and time of tests/checks/drills to be recorded and logged down.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Loadline certificate can be cancelled under following circumstances - 1. When the ship does not comply to the condition of assignment. 2. When the structural strength of the ship is lowered to such an extent that it is unsafe. 3. Information, on the basis of which the freeboard was assigned, was incorrect. 4. The certificate has not been endorsed in accordance with the rule 12 of LLC and Survey has not been carried out 5. A new loadline certificate was issued. 6. The ship, presently, has not been registered anywhere, or her loadline certificate has been cancelled.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Straits are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or EEZ and another part of high seas or EEZ. All ships (and aircrafts) have right of transit passage, which shall not be impeded; except is the strait is formed by an island of a state bordering the strait and its mainland. It shall also not apply, if there is route through high seas or EEZ, seaward of an island, which can’t be used due navigational and hydrographical characteristics. The ships during transit enjoy freedom of continuous and expeditious transit of strait (or EEZ). Ships during unimpeded transit passage: 1. To comply with the International regulations, procedures and practices including COLREGS. 2. To comply with International regulations with respect to environmental pollution.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Exclusive economic zone: this zone extends 200 NM from the baseline. Coastal nation solely exploits all natural resources. Other states may have freedom of navigation and laying of cables and pipelines. It was introduced so as to reduce the increasing disputes in fishing clashes.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Contiguos zone extends for a further 12 NM from the territorial sea or 24 NM from the baseline. The coastal state has some control over the Contiguous Zone. The coastal state may enforce laws pertaining to customs, fiscal, immigration, sanitary laws etc and can also conduct military exercises.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Continental Shelf extends at least 200NM or 350 NM (in special circumstances) from the baselines. Coastal States have sovereign right to explore and exploit the natural resources in continental shelf. Beyond 200NM – if exploration/exploitation results in revenue generation a part of it has to be shared with the international community.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Territorial Waters are the Areas/waters out to 12 nautical miles from the baseline. Coastal state is to set the laws, regulate use of any resources. Vessels shall be given right of innocent passage in territorial waters.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Innocent passage is the concept in UNCLOS which allows for a vessel to pass through the territorial waters of the other state subjected to certain restrictions. UNCLOS defines it as – the passage is called innocent if it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal state. Innocent passage to take place in conjunction with the international laws.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    If the coastal state, thinks that passage of ship is prejudicial to peace, good order or security of the coastal state and the vessel engages in: 1. Any threat, use of force against sovereignty, territorial integrity. 2. Any exercises or practices with weapons. 3. Act of collecting any security information 4. Act of affecting security/defense. 5. Act of willful and serious pollution. 6. Carrying out research and survey activities. 7. Any other activities not connected to the passage.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the side the crew member has fallen overboard 2. Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard 3. Sound three prolonged blast of the ships whistle and repeat if necessary 4. Post a lookout with binoculars and instruction to maintain a continuous watch on the man overboard 5. Hoist signal flag ‚O‘ 6. Commence a recovery maneuver, such as a Williamson turn or a single turn (Refer to wheel house poster) 7. Engage hand steering, if helmsman available 8. Note ship’s position. Wind speed and direction and time 9. Inform Master, if not already on the bridge 10. Inform engine room 11. Place engines on stand-by 12. Muster rescue boat’s crew 13. Prepare rescue boat for possible launching 14. Distribute portable VHF radios for communication 15. Rig pilot ladder/nets to assist in the recovery 16. Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station 17.Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Sound General Emergency Alarm 2. Stop the vessel / Switch on lighting 3. All crew (or passengers) to be mustered (evacuated if required). 4. Display proper lights/shapes (NUC Signal) 5. Ensure all people are accounted for and no one is injured 6. Meanwhile, the Chief Officer shall conduct the Initial damage assessment and check for the extent for the four elements - - Watertight integrity of the Hull - Weather the Engine Room is flooded or not - Report on Casualty - render first aid if required - Report on any pollution - Observe for ship’s surroundings Assessment of the extent of damage shall be done - 1. By visual inspection of the area of the impact. Calculate the rate of the flooding by acquiring soundings 2. Visually estimate the size of the area damaged 3. Check damage stability by means of loadicator 4. Consider other factors such as Risk of fire/toxic fumes etc 7. The results and findings for the above shall be presented to Master and accordingly the communication to concerned parties shall be done 8. Be ready to Abandon if the situation deteriorates (which shall include preparing Lifesaving appliances and Survival Craft) 9. Contact other vessel and confirm the safety of the crew there 10. Check if the other vessel requires any assistance, if yes render the same without endangering the safety of the own vessel/crew 11. Follow the flag state procedures for identification of the vessel/exchange of required documents and letters and notification to flag state within the stipulated time frame Such information will at least include - Name of the involved ship, port of registry and last and next destination 12. Maintain records (log entry) 13. Damage control party shall be standby 14. Close all W/T doors and Fire door and start Bilge pump on affected areas 15. Depending upon how the circumstances unfold the decision for abandoning the vessel shall be taken. If the vessel is flooding continuously and Damage Stability 16. Assessment shows that the vessel shall not remain afloat, the procedures to abandon the ship shall be adopted 17. Assuming that the vessel is not flooding further - and the vessel is capable of maneuvering, the vessel shall navigate at slow speed under proper light/shape signals. 18.If the vessel is not capable of maneuvering, appropriate and timely assistance shall be requested 19. Any Pollution occurred shall be reported to the appropriate authorities in accordance with the vessel’s SOPEP Manual 20. The VDR should be backed up immediately
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Signs of vessel experiencing squat - 1. Decrease in Speed / RPM and increased vibrations 2. Steering becomes sluggish vessel becomes difficult to maneuver 3. Increase in amplitude of waves from the ships movement 4. Bow waves becomes nearly perpendicular to ship's hull
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    1. Round the clock accurate monitoring of the vessel's route progress 2. Comparison between actual and alternative routes 3. comparison of actual speed and charter speed 4. obtaining weather related performance of the vessel 5. routed vessels may attract more favorable insurance premiums
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Following are the reasons - 1. Water in South Atlantic is comparatively cooler at surface level 2. Weak cyclonic circulations (tropical depressions)
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS) would normally form and develop in following circumstances / conditions - 1. Area where there is large continent with a large expanse of sea area to the eastward 2. Formation would take place between 5-10 degrees latitudes N or S of the Equator 3. Sea temperature higher than 27 deg C
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Co-tidal / Co-range chart is used to find the times and heights of high water in offshore areas and at places which lies between secondary ports.