Question and Answers

    Question
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Loadline certificate can be cancelled under following circumstances - 1. When the ship does not comply to the condition of assignment. 2. When the structural strength of the ship is lowered to such an extent that it is unsafe. 3. Information, on the basis of which the freeboard was assigned, was incorrect. 4. The certificate has not been endorsed in accordance with the rule 12 of LLC and Survey has not been carried out 5. A new loadline certificate was issued. 6. The ship, presently, has not been registered anywhere, or her loadline certificate has been cancelled.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Straits are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or EEZ and another part of high seas or EEZ. All ships (and aircrafts) have right of transit passage, which shall not be impeded; except is the strait is formed by an island of a state bordering the strait and its mainland. It shall also not apply, if there is route through high seas or EEZ, seaward of an island, which can’t be used due navigational and hydrographical characteristics. The ships during transit enjoy freedom of continuous and expeditious transit of strait (or EEZ). Ships during unimpeded transit passage: 1. To comply with the International regulations, procedures and practices including COLREGS. 2. To comply with International regulations with respect to environmental pollution.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Exclusive economic zone: this zone extends 200 NM from the baseline. Coastal nation solely exploits all natural resources. Other states may have freedom of navigation and laying of cables and pipelines. It was introduced so as to reduce the increasing disputes in fishing clashes.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Contiguos zone extends for a further 12 NM from the territorial sea or 24 NM from the baseline. The coastal state has some control over the Contiguous Zone. The coastal state may enforce laws pertaining to customs, fiscal, immigration, sanitary laws etc and can also conduct military exercises.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Continental Shelf extends at least 200NM or 350 NM (in special circumstances) from the baselines. Coastal States have sovereign right to explore and exploit the natural resources in continental shelf. Beyond 200NM – if exploration/exploitation results in revenue generation a part of it has to be shared with the international community.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Territorial Waters are the Areas/waters out to 12 nautical miles from the baseline. Coastal state is to set the laws, regulate use of any resources. Vessels shall be given right of innocent passage in territorial waters.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    Innocent passage is the concept in UNCLOS which allows for a vessel to pass through the territorial waters of the other state subjected to certain restrictions. UNCLOS defines it as – the passage is called innocent if it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal state. Innocent passage to take place in conjunction with the international laws.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    If the coastal state, thinks that passage of ship is prejudicial to peace, good order or security of the coastal state and the vessel engages in: 1. Any threat, use of force against sovereignty, territorial integrity. 2. Any exercises or practices with weapons. 3. Act of collecting any security information 4. Act of affecting security/defense. 5. Act of willful and serious pollution. 6. Carrying out research and survey activities. 7. Any other activities not connected to the passage.
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the side the crew member has fallen overboard 2. Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard 3. Sound three prolonged blast of the ships whistle and repeat if necessary 4. Post a lookout with binoculars and instruction to maintain a continuous watch on the man overboard 5. Hoist signal flag ‚O‘ 6. Commence a recovery maneuver, such as a Williamson turn or a single turn (Refer to wheel house poster) 7. Engage hand steering, if helmsman available 8. Note ship’s position. Wind speed and direction and time 9. Inform Master, if not already on the bridge 10. Inform engine room 11. Place engines on stand-by 12. Muster rescue boat’s crew 13. Prepare rescue boat for possible launching 14. Distribute portable VHF radios for communication 15. Rig pilot ladder/nets to assist in the recovery 16. Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station 17.Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity
    marinetales May 30, 2021
    1. Sound General Emergency Alarm 2. Stop the vessel / Switch on lighting 3. All crew (or passengers) to be mustered (evacuated if required). 4. Display proper lights/shapes (NUC Signal) 5. Ensure all people are accounted for and no one is injured 6. Meanwhile, the Chief Officer shall conduct the Initial damage assessment and check for the extent for the four elements - - Watertight integrity of the Hull - Weather the Engine Room is flooded or not - Report on Casualty - render first aid if required - Report on any pollution - Observe for ship’s surroundings Assessment of the extent of damage shall be done - 1. By visual inspection of the area of the impact. Calculate the rate of the flooding by acquiring soundings 2. Visually estimate the size of the area damaged 3. Check damage stability by means of loadicator 4. Consider other factors such as Risk of fire/toxic fumes etc 7. The results and findings for the above shall be presented to Master and accordingly the communication to concerned parties shall be done 8. Be ready to Abandon if the situation deteriorates (which shall include preparing Lifesaving appliances and Survival Craft) 9. Contact other vessel and confirm the safety of the crew there 10. Check if the other vessel requires any assistance, if yes render the same without endangering the safety of the own vessel/crew 11. Follow the flag state procedures for identification of the vessel/exchange of required documents and letters and notification to flag state within the stipulated time frame Such information will at least include - Name of the involved ship, port of registry and last and next destination 12. Maintain records (log entry) 13. Damage control party shall be standby 14. Close all W/T doors and Fire door and start Bilge pump on affected areas 15. Depending upon how the circumstances unfold the decision for abandoning the vessel shall be taken. If the vessel is flooding continuously and Damage Stability 16. Assessment shows that the vessel shall not remain afloat, the procedures to abandon the ship shall be adopted 17. Assuming that the vessel is not flooding further - and the vessel is capable of maneuvering, the vessel shall navigate at slow speed under proper light/shape signals. 18.If the vessel is not capable of maneuvering, appropriate and timely assistance shall be requested 19. Any Pollution occurred shall be reported to the appropriate authorities in accordance with the vessel’s SOPEP Manual 20. The VDR should be backed up immediately
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Signs of vessel experiencing squat - 1. Decrease in Speed / RPM and increased vibrations 2. Steering becomes sluggish vessel becomes difficult to maneuver 3. Increase in amplitude of waves from the ships movement 4. Bow waves becomes nearly perpendicular to ship's hull
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    1. Round the clock accurate monitoring of the vessel's route progress 2. Comparison between actual and alternative routes 3. comparison of actual speed and charter speed 4. obtaining weather related performance of the vessel 5. routed vessels may attract more favorable insurance premiums
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Following are the reasons - 1. Water in South Atlantic is comparatively cooler at surface level 2. Weak cyclonic circulations (tropical depressions)
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS) would normally form and develop in following circumstances / conditions - 1. Area where there is large continent with a large expanse of sea area to the eastward 2. Formation would take place between 5-10 degrees latitudes N or S of the Equator 3. Sea temperature higher than 27 deg C
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Co-tidal / Co-range chart is used to find the times and heights of high water in offshore areas and at places which lies between secondary ports.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A new danger is the term used to describe newly discovered hazards which have not yet been indicated in nautical publications. They may include naturally occurring obstructions such as sandbanks and rocks or man made dangers such as wrecks. They are marked using the Emergency Wreck Marking Buoy. The buoy is expected to be deployed for the first 24-72 hours after the wreck occurs. After that time more permanent buoyage (such as isolated danger marks or cardinal marks should be deployed and charts updated.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    A chart which is published for the first time is called a New Chart. The date of publication is inserted outside the bottom margin usually in the middle of the chart.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    New Edition refers to a navigational Chart which is completely or partly revised. New edition is normally stated next to the date of the publication and all previous copies are cancelled when a New Edition is published.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    The Gnomonic charts are used for - 1. Great Circle sailing 2. Polar navigation in high latitudes
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI sets the following regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships: - Regulation 12: Ozone depleting substances - Regulation 13: Nitrogen Oxides from Diesel Engines - Regulation 14: Sulphur Oxides - Regulation 15: Volatile organic compounds (applies to tankers only, regulated by port authorities) - Regulation 16: Shipboard incineration - Regulation 18: Fuel Oil Quality The following forms the basis of Renewal Survey for Renewal of IAPP Certificate - 1. Installation of any new equipment or changes to existing equipment 2. Instructions / Notices including operating manuals for the operation of equipment 3. Check the validity of statutory certificates and class certificates 4. Ship is to be provided with SEEMP as required by the regulation 5. Ship is to be provided with SEEMP Part II and approved by the Classification society 6. Confirm that fuel oil consumption data is being collected and recorded as per the SEEMP 7. Presence of ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) on board - e.g. Fire Fighting Installation, Air Conditioning / Refrigeration Installations 8. ships, plans, manuals and documents indicating the location on board and the details of systems equipment, including portable fire extinguishers, insulation or other material containing ozone depleting substances (Ozone Depleting Substances Record Book), if any, have been examined and identified in Record of Construction and Equipment 9. Are there procedures to prevent and/or mitigate deliberate emission of ODS including emissions occurring ... in the course of maintenance, servicing, repairing or disposing of systems or equipments 10. Confirmation that no new installation or equipment, which contain ODS other than HCFCs, have been fitted ... on ships constructed after 19 May 2005 11. external examination of installation or equipment containing ODS 12. Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) Certificates for each ... marine diesel engine, required to be certified 13. Check and inspect the approved NOX technical file for each marine diesel engine required to be certified. 14. Record book of engine parameters for each marine diesel engine 15. record book of engine parameters for each marine diesel engine 16. Confirm that engine adjustable features are within the limits specified in the engine technical file 17. Shipboard Incineration and records 18. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) - applicable for oil tankers / gas tankers / chemical tankers 19. Fuel oil quality analysis 20. Bunker delivery notes 21. Oil Record Books
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Panama flag state regulations can be downloaded from their official website.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Objective evidence is any form of information, records, or statements of facts which indicates implementation of safe management system by the shipping company and its ships. The objective evidence is based on observations, measurements, or tests that are made during an audit and which can be verified. These might include maintenance of certain reports and checklists prior carrying out crucial tasks etc. Few examples of Objective Evidence are - 1. Ship has encountered poor visibility during her voyage. In compliance with the checklist the vessel would have maneuvered reduced speed. The objective evidence of its verification can be found out by checking Deck log book records / Engine Log Book records and relevant checklist. 2. Failure to maintain Work and Rest hour records is an objective evidence that the Work-Rest hour requirements are not being complied with
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars. Measuring to the stern post or rudder stock was believed to give a reasonable idea of the ship's carrying capacity, as it excluded the small, often unusable volume contained in her overhanging ends. Length between perpendiculars is extensively used in Draft Survey calculations onboard ships
    seawizard June 13, 2021
    Due to the operation of propeller, the liner enveloping the propeller shaft, undergoes wear, with time. Naturally, as the bronze liner gets worn, the propeller and the shaft drops slightly under their own weight. This is called propeller drop. This drop is measured by a tool called poker gauge.
    marinetales May 28, 2021
    The 15 ppm sensor of OWS (Oily Water Separator) is calibrated usually once a year. In this a Calibration liquid is supplied to 15 ppm sensor. If the display shows the ppm to be exactly same as the ppm of sample, sensor does not require any calibration / adjustment / replacement and OWS sensor is said to be performing well. Supply clean and distilled water into the sensor. The monitor should display 0.