Question and Answers

    Question
    marinetales May 14, 2021
    Stopping distance is the distance covered by a ship (which is making headway), after the engines are stopped. Stopping distance are of two types : 1. Inertia Stop 2. Crash Stop 1. Inertia Stop: when the engine of the ship is stopped, the ship will continue moving in the same direction for some more distance due to inertia. Here no astern command is given (used to produce “braking effect” for ships), and hence ship will travel more distance in the inertia stop method. 2. Crash Stop: Here the engine, which is moving in an ahead direction is given an order for full astern, leaving the rudder in the mid ship position to stop the ship within minimum distance and shortest possible time.
    marinetales May 13, 2021
    I presume we are talking about wet chemical type extinguishers used in extinguishing deep fat fryer fires. Wet Chemical fire extinguishers contain a liquid extinguishing agent which is used to smother fires ignited from cooking oils and fats. Wet chemical fire extinguishers are filled with potassium, which cools and lowers the temperature of the fire, therefore stopping the fire from spreading.
    marinetales May 13, 2021
    SEEMP is a ship specific plan made by the owners/managers. The plan needs to be approved by the Classification Society. The SEEMP is a plan which is ship specific and has to be implemented according to the ship type, cargoes carried, ship routes, and other relevant factors. Hence, SEEMP cannot be implemented on a company or fleet level. Even two sister ships will have a different SEEMP.
    marinetales May 13, 2021
    Refrigerant 22 is now probably the most common refrigerant used on ships. It provides a considerable range of low-temperature operation.
    marinetales May 9, 2021
    As per the latest changes in MARPOL The bunker delivery note shall include a declaration signed and certified by the fuel oil supplier's representative that the fuel oil supplied is in conformity with regulation 18.3 of MARPOL Annex VI and that the sulphur content of the fuel oil supplied does not exceed the Sulphur limits. Additionally, the fuel oil samples are always lab tested for suitability and compliance prior being used as per the management instructions.
    marinetales April 15, 2021
    Standardised Cargo : Standardised Cargo means a Cargo for Which a ship is provided with an approved securing system based upon Cargo units of specific types. Non -standardised Cargo : means Cargo which requires individual stowage and securing arrangements.
    marinetales May 13, 2021
    Following are the reasons: 1. Bunker oil is refined oil and not crude oil. 2. Bunker fuel is required to have a Flash point temperature of 60 deg C and above as per the Classification Society rules. 3. Bunker fuel is not flammable under normal temperature and pressure, as carried in the bunker tanks of ships. Provided the bunker tanks are not heated above around 40C, they are not considered flammable 4. Further, owing to the smaller size of the bunker tanks, the atmosphere usually is "too rich" to cause combustion
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    The provisions of IMDG Code are applicable to all ships to – 1. which the International Convention for the Safety of life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74), as amended, applies and which are carrying dangerous goods as defined in regulation 1 of part A of chapter VII of SOLAS. 2. All ships, irrespective of type and size, carrying substances, material or articles identified in IMDG Code as marine pollutants.
    marinetales April 7, 2021
    Radio medical advice is available free of charge to provide support in cases where an individual suffers either illness or an accident at sea. The advice is intended to supplement the first aid training of the vessel’s crew and the written guidance available, for example in the Ship Captain’s Medical Guide. To obtain radio medical advice the master should first contact the nearest coast radio station or CIRM Italy. Contact should first be made using VHF, MF, HF DSC or Inmarsat Upon receiving the instructions from the doctor the evacuation shall be arranged. In such a case Master might need to furnish further information.
    marinetales April 6, 2021
    Mixing fully refrigerated Butane with fully refrigerated Propane generates flash gas, and there is a risk that if the mixing is conducted too fast and/or the pressure tendency is not being monitored scrupulously enough, the ship’s cargo tank relief valves will lift – causing a hazardous, uncontrolled release of a LPG vapour cloud on the jetty and around the vessel. This is most likely to occur during the loading operation when the vessel’s tank pressures are typically higher than they normally are at any other stage of the voyage. During the loading operation all of the vessel’s compressors will normally be running at maximum capacity. If the vessel was to experience a loss of compressor capability due to any power problems or even a complete loss of power during the co-mingling operation there would be no contingency for disposal of the vapour generated unless a vapour return line was fitted. The presence of a vapour return line would allow the vapour to be sent to the shore thus potentially preventing the relief valves from lifting. A real concern would be to ensure that the final volume of any tank did not exceed more than 98% full. Co-mingling does involve the risk of over filling a tank, a risk especially acute during loading when there are many other events which may distract the deck officer’s attention. The co-mingling operation can also cause "apparent" losses, as the density of the mixture will not be a mathematical average of the densities of the components – because the molecular composition is different. Calculation of cargo densities in such circumstances is discussed in Appendices 3 & 4 of the SIGTTO publication Furthermore the temperature of the mixture may not be equal throughout. Non-equal temperature distributions can lead to problems in correcting for cargo tank shrinkage, float immersion and the temperature correction to be applied when quantifying the cargo. Co-mingling on board fully pressurized vessels is not a major safety issue as there is no temperature gradient and the vessels are designed to be able to carry the cargo at ambient temperatures well within the safety valve settings. On board semi-refrigerated vessels it is also not considered to be a major safety issue although the relief valve settings can vary considerably in range from vessel to vessel. If the vessel is able to contain the Propane at Butane temperatures then there is no major safety issue as there is no risk of pressure rise leading to uncontrolled release of vapour. This is the reason why co-mingling on board fully refrigerated vessels causes the most concern as these vessels are not designed to carry Propane at Butane temperatures.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    The allowable limits of Shearing Force and Bending Moments are the values which the structure of the ship is designed to take. The Ship’s capacity to bear SF and BM depends upon its sectional properties (differs from ship to ship). This capacity of the ship to take sheer and bending moment varies from one longitudinal location to other. These values are stated in the Stability Booklet of the vessel and depends upon the Classification Society Rules which lays down such requirements. The values of SF/BM are in Newton-Metre and is defined on a scale of 0% to 100% on loadicator. A ship will always have some value of stress so the value can never be 0%. But in any case it should never exceed 100%.
    marinetales August 17, 2021
    The validity of medical chest certificate is 12 months.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    In actual, declaring MOB situation as a distress or an Urgency depends upon a lot of circumstances and sound judgement of the Master. For eg. let us assume a situation where the person has gone overboard but is in sight and rescue operations are initiated. A sound judgement will always tell to transmit such situation as PAN PAN (urgency) as the situation is under control and there is no immediate danger to the life. This is because, once Mayday is transmitted it will ”redirect” all the traffic towards you and all other emergencies would ”lockout” since a Mayday call has already been initiated by the vessel. Let us assume a scenario, where by the MOB’s time and position is unknown. In this case, let us say that the Master evaluates (keeping in mind the situation and circumstances including weather, sea, light, visibility ) and then concludes that he might gain a ”upper hand” if he initiates a Mayday call instead of Urgency. Understand that ”Location” is an extremely important factor in ”Distress” call.So, what i mean to say is that it would depend entirely upon the discretion of Master whether to initiate the call as URGENCY or DISTRESS. If there is an immediate danger to the life, DISTRESS should always be initiated. However, do note that an ”URGENCY” call can be upgraded to ”DISTRESS” situation and NOT vice-versa. If any doubt exists the ship’s contingency manual should always be consulted and checked for as to which call should be made in order to show compliance with SMS contingency procedures.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    In accordance with Rule No 18, both RAM and NUC vessels have the responsibility to keep clear of each other. In this case, both vessel should take action and such action should preferably be to starboard.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    Cargo Bilge water on bulk carriers can be divided into 2 types – 1. Water containing cargo residues harmful to the marine environment (HME) and; 2. Water containing cargo residues non-harmful to the marine environment (NON-HME). Discharge requirements for NON-HME Cargoes 1. Outside special areas Discharge allowed greater than or equal to 12NM (vessel enroute) 2. Within Special Areas Discharge is prohibited However, there is an exception, discharge is ONLY ALLOWED when both the loading port (next port) and the discharge port (last port), is within special area and NO part of the voyage lies outside the special area AND that both port of loading and discharge does not have shore reception facilities. Due to this reason most of the bulk carriers have now dedicated SLOP tanks so that such wash water can be stored. Discharge requirements for HME Cargo wash water- HME cargo wash water – discharge is prohibited both in Special area and outside special area. Such wash water is required to be landed ASHORE ONLY.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    Convention is a major change (or a collection of change) which are brought into force when either a major accident happens (eg sinking of Titanic which resulted in SOLAS) or when an important research establishes the need for such convention (eg Ballast water convention). The Code on the other hand is a part of Convention and is quoted within the convention. It provides the technical aspects of the element to which the convention is referring to. Example of this is SOLAS Chap III refers to Life Saving Appliances through LSA Code. So for details about Lifebuoy or hand flares you need to refer to the LSA Code. Codes are developed in order to keep the Convention limited otherwise the Convention will become very thick book.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    The timber loadlines are always above the normal loadlines. This means that the cargo of timber (or lumber) can be loaded more as compared to what would have been loaded if the vessel was using normal loadlines. Understand that the higher loadline means that the freeboard (in case of using timber LL) is lesser compared to when the normal loadline is used. The reason for this is when the timber is loaded on such ship it becomes a part of the ship adding/improving the reserve buoyancy of the vessel as a whole.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    A ship’s size is usually defined by the amount of cargo / deadweight / volume etc it caters to. Example a handysize vessel is so called because it caters to a certain size and is different from panamax and capesize. So how do we define the size of a container ship? As u know container ship carries ”boxes” unlike bulk carrier which carries cargo in bulk (the unit of which is in tonnes). So how do you define lowest unit on containers? It is the TEU or Twenty footer container. As you know that TEU is the smallest unit – even a FEU (or forty footer) is made up of 2 x TEU (2 20 foot containers). So the unit in which we define the cargo carrying capacity of a container ship is TEU and not FEU.
    marinetales August 23, 2020
    The Chain register is issued by the Classification society.
    marinetales August 22, 2020
    Inspection is a check of PHYSICAL condition of an item, such as inspection of Lifeboat or extinguishers (which you need to carry out physically). Audit focuses on past activities, detects faults, focuses on operations, system operation and documentation. Audits are not every thorough. Survey focuses on future activities so that the equipment continues to function in future. It focuses on physical status (eg a machinery which should be working in order for the survey to clear). Survey is more thorough in nature.
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